/Fatwa MUI on protection of endangered species to maintain the balanced ecosystem no. 4-2014 (Part 2)
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Fatwa MUI on protection of endangered species to maintain the balanced ecosystem no. 4-2014 (Part 2)

The hadith above asserts the prohibition on killing a whole species of animals, causing it to extinct.

 

عَنْ عَبْدِ اللهِ بْنِ عُمَرَ رَضِيَ اللهُ عَنْهُمَا أَنَّ رَسُوْلَ اللهِ صَلىَّ اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَالَ”عُذٍّبَتْ امْرَأَةٌ فِيْ هِرَّةٍ سَجَنَتْهَا حَتَّى مَاتَتْ فَدَخَلَتْ فِيْهَا النَّارَ لَا هِيَ أَطْعَمَتْهَا وَلَا سَقَتْهَا إِذْ حَبَسَتْهَا وَلَا هِيَ تَرَكَتْهَا تَأْكُلُ مِنْ خَشَاشِ الْأَرْضِ” (أخرجه البخاري)

Abdullah ibn Umar ra quoted the Prophet (pbuh) as saying: ‘A woman will dwell and be tortured in hell because of a cat she had kept locked until it died. She did not feed nor give the cat water while it was caged. She did not let it find its own food’.” (narrated by al-Bukhari)

 

The above mentioned hadith emphasizes a punishment threat for people who assault and kill animals, including those who engage in activities endangering the lives of animals.

 

عَنْ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ رَضِيَ اللهُ عَنْهُمَا قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ لَا ضَرَرَ وَلَا ضِرَارَ (رواه أحمد والبيهقي والحاكم وابن ماجة)

Ibn Abbas ra said: the Prophet (pbuh) said: ‘One shall not harm oneself and shall not harm others’.” (narrated by Ahmad, al-Baihaqi, al-Hakim and Ibn Majah)

 

The hadith prohibits activities that may harm oneself and/or others, including animals.

 

3. Qawaid Usuliyyah (rules of the Islamic law) and Qawaid Fiqhiyyah (principles of Islamic jurisprudence)

 

الأَصْلُ فِيْ الأَشْيَاءِ الإِبَاحَةُ إِلَّا مَا دَلَّ الدَّلِيْلُ عَلَى خِلَافِهِ

Principally, everything (excluding services to God) is permitted, unless there is a daleel (evidence, in the form of Quran verses or hadiths) saying otherwise.”

 

الأَصْلُ فِيْ النَّهْيِ لِلتَّحْرِيْمِ

In principal, a prohibition on something indicates that it is haram (forbidden)”

 

تَصَرُّفُ اْلإِمَامِ عَلَى الرَّعِيَّةِ مَنُوْطٌ بِالْمَصَلَحَةِ

A policy of a leader [government] concerning its people should be based on whether it will benefit the people.”

 

الضَّرَرُ يُزَالُ

A harm should be removed.”

الضَّرَرُ يُدْفَعُ بِقَدْرِ الْإِمْكَانِ

“All harms should be avoided as far as one can.”

الضَّرَرُ لاَ يُزَالُ بِالضَّرَرِ

A harm should not be rid of by bringing in another harm.”

دَرْءُ الْمَفَاسِدِ مُقَدَّمٌ عَلَى جَلْبِ الْمَصَالِحِ

Avoiding a harm should come first before bringing in a benefit.”

 

يُتَحَمَّلُ الضَّرَرُ الْخَاصُّ لِدَفْعِ الضَّرَرِ الْعَامِّ

“A specific harm should be borne to avoid a general [larger-scale] harm.”

 

إِذَا تَعَارَضَتْ مَفْسَدَتَانِ أَوْ ضَرَرَانِ رُوْعِيَ أَعْظَمُهُمَا ضَرَرًا بِارْتِكَابِ أَخَفِّهِمَا

When two harms or dangers are in place, a bigger harm or danger should be avoided by opting on an act carrying the smaller risk of danger.”

 

حُرْمَةُ بَنِي آدَمَ أَعْظَمُ مِنْ حُرْمَةِ الْحَيَوَانِ

 “Ensuring the human livelihood should come first before that of animals.”

 

 

CONSIDERING:       1. Ulamas’ (Islamic Scholars’) opinions concerning animal conservation, including those of the followings:

 

a. Imam Ibn Hajar al-’Asqalani in the book Fath al-Bari, who said that the hadith on love included love for animals:

 

قَالَ اِبْنُ بَطَّالٍ : فِيْهِ ( هَذاَ الْحَدِيْثِ )الْحَضُّ عَلَى اسْتِعْمَالِ الرَّحْمَةِ لِجَمِيْعِ الْخَلْقِ فَيُدْخَلُ الْمُؤْمِنُ وَالْكَافِرُ وَالْبَهَائِمُ الْمَمْلُوْكُ مِنْهَا وَغَيْرُ الْمَمْلُوْكِ ، وَيَدْخُلُ فِي الرَّحْمَةِ التَّعَاهُدُ بِالْإِطْعَامِ وَالسَّقِيِ وَالتَّخْفِيْفِ فِي الْحَمْلِ وَتَرْكِ التَّعَدِّي بِالضَّرْبِ

 

Ibn Battal said: ‘The hadith [on God’s order to love] encourages people to care for every creature, including believers and non-believers, and livestock owned and those owned by no one. It also specifies an instruction to feed and give water [to animals], to ease their loads and not overstep the boundary by beating [the animals]’.”

 

b. Imam al-Sharbini in the book Mughni al-Muhtaj (5/527) and (6/37) explained the obligation to protect rare animals and the prohibition on causing them to extinct:

أَمَّا مَا فِيهِ رُوحٌ فَيَجِبُ الدَّفْعُ عَنْهُ إذَا قُصِدَ إتْلَافُهُ مَا لَمْ يَخْشَ عَلَى نَفْسِهِ أَوْ بُضْعٌ لِحُرْمَةِ الرُّوحِ حَتَّى لَوْ رَأَى أَجْنَبِيٌّ شَخْصًا يُتْلِفُ حَيَوَانَ نَفْسِهِ إتْلَافًا مُحَرَّمًا وَجَبَ عَلَيْهِ دَفْعُهُ (مغني المحتاج 5/527، للشربيني)

 

As for animals, which possess souls, one is obliged to protect them from attempts to annihilate them, so long as there is no worry that [the efforts] will harm them. Therefore, if one sees an animal owner attempting to kill the animal under a forbidden circumstance, then that person [who sees the attempt] is obliged to protect [the animal].”

 

وَيَحْرُمُ إتْلَافُ الْحَيَوَانِ الْمُحْتَرَمِ لِلنَّهْيِ عَنْ ذَبْحِ الْحَيَوَانِ إلَّا لِأَكْلِهِ  وَخَالَفَ الْأَشْجَارَ؛ لِأَنَّ لِلْحَيَوَانِ حُرْمَتَيْنِ : حَقَّ مَالِكِهِ ، وَحَقَّ اللَّهِ تَعَالَى… وَلِذَلِكَ يُمْنَعُ مَالِكُ الْحَيَوَانِ مِنْ إجَاعَتِهِ وَعَطَشِهِ بِخِلَافِ الْأَشْجَارِ (مغني المحتاج 6/37، للشربيني)

 

It is haram (unlawful) to annihilate honored animals as it is prohibited to slay animals for non-consumption purposes. Animals are different from trees because they have two honored rights: from the owners and from Allah SWT… Therefore, animal owners are prohibited from leaving their animals famished and thirsty; different with trees.”

 

c. Imam Zakaria in the book Asna al-Matalib (1/555) explains the haram status of animal hunting — which may lead to destruction and extinction — without an acceptable purpose:

وَقَدْ نَصَّ الْفُقَهَاءُ عَلَى حُرْمَةِ اصْطِيَادِ الْمَأْكُوْلِ بِغَيْرِ نِيَّةِ الذَّكَاةِ لأَنَّهُ يَؤُوْلُ إِلَى إِهْلاَكِهِ بِغَيْرِ مَقْصَدٍ شَرْعِيٍّ، مِمَّا يَجْعَلُ الْفِعْلَ عَبَثًا وَهُوَ مَمْنُوْعٌ شَرْعًا (أسنى المطالب شرح دليل الطالب 1/555، لزكريا بن محمد بن زكريا الأنصاري)

 

The Fuqaha (experts of Islamic jurisprudence) have decided it is haram (unlawful) to hunt animals whose meats are halal (permissible), when the hunt is not aimed at slaughtering the animals for consumption. Such activities will lead to extinction, without any excuse that may be allowed under the Islamic law — vain, meaningless   activities. These activities are prohibited under the Islamic law.”

 

d. Imam Ibn Qudamah in the book al-Mughni (4/137) asserts the permission to kill animals endangering one’s life, and on the other hand the prohibition on killing animals harming no one.

كُلُّ مَا آذَى النَّاسَ ، وَضَرَّهُمْ فِي أَنْفُسِهِمْ وَأَمْوَالِهِمْ ، يُبَاحُ قَتْلُهُ ؛ لِأَنَّهُ يُؤْذِي بِلَا نَفْعٍ ، أَشْبَهَ الذِّئْبَ ، وَمَا لَا مَضَرَّةَ فِيهِ ، لَا يُبَاحُ قَتْلُهُ (المغني 4/173، لابن قدامة)

 

Every animal that hurts someone or harms their life and their fortune may be killed, because they cause harm without bringing in any benefit, like wolves. Animals harming no one should not be killed.”

 

e. Imam al-Dardiri in the book of al-Sharh al-Kabir (1/162) explains that protecting the lives of animals should be a priority:

إِذَا كَانَ الْمَاءُ الَّذِي يَمْلِكُهُ الإِنْسَانُ لاَ يَكْفِي إِلاَّ لِوُضُوْئِهِ وَكَانَ هُنَاكَ حَيَوَانٌ مُحْتَرَمٌ مُضْطَرٌّ لِذَلِكَ الْمَاءِ، فَإِنَّ الْوَاجِبَ عَلَى صَاحِبِ الْمَاءِ التَّيَمُّمُ وَإِيْثَارُ الْحَيَوَانِ بِالْمَاءِ وَالْعُدُوْلُ إِلىَ التَّيَمُّمِ، وَلَوْ كَانَ صَاحِبُ الْمَاءِ مَيِّتاً فَإِنَّهُ يُتَيَمَّمُ كَذَلِكَ وَيُدْفَعُ الْمَاءُ إِلَى الْحَيَوَانِ لِيَشْرَبَ، وَيُعَلِّلُ الْفُقَهَاءُ ذَلِكَ بِالْمُحَافَظَةِ عَلَى حَيَاةِ الْحَيَوَانِ (الشرح الكبير مع حاشية الدسوقي 1/162، للدرديري)

When one finds water enough only for him to do wudu (ablution), while an honored animal urgently needs water, the owner of the water should perform a tayammum (dry ablution) instead and give the water to the animal. If the water is intended for a deceased, then he, too, should be treated with tayammum instead; while the water should be given to the animal for it to drink. The fuqaha decided on this because it is necessary to sustain the lives of animals.”

f. Imam Ahmad al-Khattabi in his book of Ma’alim al-Sunan (4/289), explains the prohibition on causing animal extinctions entirely:

مَعْنَاهُ أَنَّهُ كُرِهَ إِفْنَاءُ أُمَّةٍ مِنَ اْلأُمَمِ وَإِعْدَامُ جَيْلٍ مِنَ الْخَلْقِ حَتَّى يَأْتِيَ عَلَيْهِ كُلِّهِ، فَلاَ يَبْقَى مِنْهُ بَاقِيَةٌ لأَنَّهُ مَا مِنْ خَلْقٍ لِلَّهِ تَعَالَى إِلاَّ وَفِيْهِ نَوْعٌ مِنَ الْحِكْمَةِ وَضَرْبٌ مِنَ الْمَصْلَحَةِ. يَقُوْلُ إِذَا كَانَ الأَمْرُ عَلَى هَذَا وَلاَ سَبِيْلَ إِلَى قَتْلِهِنَّ كُلِّهِنَّ فَاقْتُلُوْا شِرَارَهُنَّ وَهِيَ السُّوْدُ الْبُهْمُ، وَأَبْقُوْا مَا سِوَاهَا لِتَنْتَفِعُوْا بِهِنَّ فِي الْحِرَاسَةِ (معالم السنن 4/289، لأحمد بن حمد بن محمد الخطابي)

 

It is understood that the extinction of a people and the annihilation of a generation of a creature, leaving out not a single one of them to live, are very much detested. There is no single creature of Allah SWT created with no purposes and uses. Hence, there is no justification for killing animals entirely (causing their extinction). Kill animals that caused harm on you but let others be alive, so that they may bring about benefits.”

 

g. Imam ‘Izz ibn Abd al-Salam in the book of Qawa’id al-Ahkam (1/167) explained the rights of animals that must be fulfilled by the human being:

حُقُوْقُ الْبَهَائِمِ وَالْحَيَوَانِ عَلَى اْلإِنْسَانِ، وَذَلِكَ أَنْ يُنْفِقَ عَلَيْهَا نَفَقَةً مِثْلِهَا وَلَوْ زَمِنَتْ أَوْ مَرِضَتْ بِحَيْثُ لاَ يُنْتَفَعُ بِهَا،وَأَلاَّ يُحَمِّلَهَا مَا لاَ تُطِيْقُ وَلاَ يَجْمَعَ بَيْنَهَا وَبَيْنَ مَا يُؤْذِيْهَا مِنْ جِنْسِهَا أَوْ مِنْ غَيْرِ جِنْسِهَا بِكَسْرٍ أَوْ نَطْحٍ أَوْ جَرْحٍ … وَأَنْ يَجْمَعَ بَيْنَ ذُكُوْرِهَا وَإِنَاثِهَا فِي إِبَانِ إِتْيَانِهَا (قواعد الأحكام 1/167، للعز بن عبد السلام)

 “Among the rights of animals that become the responsibility of the human being are sufficient provision for them, even if they are paralyzed or sick which cause them to be of no use; giving them no loads beyond their capacity; not gathering them with other animals that may harm them, be them animals of the same kind or others; and bring in the males and females together so that they may produce offspring.”

 

h. Imam al-Shawkani in the book of Nail al-Autar (8/100) quoted the view of Imam al-Khatthabi, as follows:

قَالَ الْخَطَّابِي: يُشْبِهُ أَنْ يَكُوْنَ الْمَعْنَى وَاللهُ أَعْلَمُ أَنَّ الْحُمُرَ إِذَا حَمَلَتْ عَلَى الْخَيْلِ قَلَّ عَدَدُهَا وَانْقَطَعَ نَمَاؤُهَا وَتَعَطَّلَتْ مَنَافِعُهَا (نيل الأوطار 8/100، للشوكاني)

The interpretation – wallahu a’lam (and Allah knows best) – is that if a donkey is impregnated by a horse, then (there will be a lower number of donkeys; their growth will be curbed).”

 

i. Al-Jahiz, Abu Uthman Amr ibn Bahr al-Fukaymi al-Basri (776-869 AD), stated in His book al-Hayawan/the Animals on page 162 that the human beings are not entitled to mistreat animals, as saying the following.

ليس لك أن تحدث في جميع الْحَيَوَانِ حَدثا من نقص أو نقض  أو إيلام، لأنك لا تملِك النشأة، ولاَ يمكنك التعويض لهُ، فإذا إذن لك مالك العين … حل لك من ذلك ما كان لا يحل، وليس لك في حجة العقل أن تصنع بها إلا ما كان به مصلحة. (الحيوان، ص 162 للجاحظ)

     “You are not entitled to cut an organ or to persecute and hurt all kinds of animals because you are not the one who created it and cannot replace it. If the All Owner has permitted, then you are allowed to do harm to the animal which has not been allowed before. You cannot do it with a rational reason, unless there are serious benefits in it.”

 

j. The working paper of Dr. Ahmad Yasin Al-Qaralah entitled “Huquq al-Hayawan wa Damanatuha fi al-Fiqh al-Islami”, which says:

أَثْبَتَ الْفِقْهُ الإِسْلاَمِيُّ لِلْحَيَوَانِ الحَقُّ فِى بَقَاءِ نَوْعِهِ، لِذَلِكَ لاَ يَجُوْزُ قَتْلُهُ أَوْ ذبْحُهُ إِذَا كَانَ ذَلِكَ يُؤَدِّي إِلَى انْقِرَاضِهِ وَفَنَائِهِ (المجلة الأردنية في الدراسات الإسلامية ص.34)

 “The Islamic law rules that an animal has a right to preserve its kind. Therefore, it is forbidden to kill or slaughter them, if the action may cause the species to be extinct or disappear.”

 

 

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